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Zyban tablets contain the active ingredient bupropion hydrochloride, which is a medicine used to help people who are dependant on nicotine to give up smoking. It acts in the brain but is not the same as nicotine replacement therapy. It is not fully understood how this medicine works to help people give up smoking, but it is known that bupropion affects neurotransmitters in the brain. Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are stored in nerve cells and are involved in transmitting messages between the nerve cells. Neurotransmitters are released from nerve cells as a message is transmitted. Once the message has been transmitted, the nerve cells then reabsorb the neurotransmitter. Zyban (Bupropion) prevents two of these neurotransmitters, noradrenaline and dopamine, from being reabsorbed back into the nerve cells. Noradrenaline and dopamine are responsible for moderating mood and various other processes in the brain. It is thought that bupropion helps people to quit smoking by increasing the amount of noradrenaline and dopamine free to act in the brain. Zyban is used in combination with motivational support techniques. You should seek help and support as much as possible while giving up smoking, even while taking this medicine, as this will increase your chance of success. You should start taking this medicine while you are still smoking and set a 'target stop date' for within the first two weeks of treatment, preferably in the second week. This is because the medicine needs time to start working. The starting dose is one tablet once a day for six days, increasing on day seven to one tablet twice a day. There should be an interval of at least eight hours between doses. It is best to take your first dose when you get up in the morning and your second dose at least eight hours later. Try to avoid taking your second dose at bedtime, as difficulty sleeping (insomnia) is a common side effect of the medicine. If you have not managed to stop smoking by the seventh week of treatment, your doctor will ask you to stop taking this medicine.